Thống Kê Newsletter
Lần đầu đến với Nhịp Cầu Giáo Lý?

Những liên kết dưới đây có thể hữu ích với bạn.

 
  • Quyển kinh Đạo Nam do nhà xuất bản Lao Động xuất bản năm 2007. Nguồn gốc: " Hưng thiện đàn" ở ...


  • Cao Đài Nhứt Bổn / Ban Biên Tập

    Cao Đài nhứt bổn Từ khi con người có mặt trên địa cầu, điều mong muốn đầu tiên là sự sống, ...


  • Hôm nay chúng ta qui tụ về đây tham dự lễ kỷ niệm ngày tái thiết Vĩnh Nguyên Tự cùng ...


  • “Từ thuở khai Thiên tịch Địa sắp bày trần thế đến ngày nay, các con chỉ hiểu đạo khai trong ...


  • Minh Lý Đạo Khai / Thiện Chí

    Minh Lý Đạo Khai (Bài phát biểu cảm tưởng trong buổi lễ Minh Lý Đạo Khai tại Tam Tông Miếu) Ngày 26 ...


  • Câu chuyện đức tin THÁNH THẤT THÀNH CÔNG - NHỮNG ĐIỀU HUYỀN DIỆU Trong thời đại văn minh, một xã hội duy ...


  • Trước đây, trong thời gian những năm cuối thập niên 70 thế kỷ trước, Hội Đồng Nghiên Cứu Giáo Lý ...


  • Quan Âm Như Lai / Đức Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát

    Thi văn Đức Bồ Tát trong Kinh Tam Nguơn Giác Thế Nhựt hoành nhị thập kiến giai thì Lục nhựt đạo thành ...


  • Chữ tâm là chốn Cao Đài / Quách Hiệp Long

    "Chữ tâm là chốn Cao Đài, Không phân tả hữu là ngai Thượng Hoàng" Quách Hiệp Long Đó là lời dạy của đức ...


  • Nguyên lý của thiên đạo giải thoát Bài thuyết minh giáo lý nội bộ tại Cơ Quan Phổ Thông Giáo Lý ...


  • CHÚA THÁNH LINH / Tường Như sưu tầm

    Các ngươi có biết vì sao nền Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ phải dùng bằng huyền diệu cơ bút ...


  • Không gian và thời gian trong vũ trụ Thiện Quang Bài thuyết minh giáo lý nội bộ tại Cơ Quan Phổ Thông Giáo ...


24/08/2021
Thiện Chí

Bài viết được cập nhật lần cuối vào ngày 24/08/2021

Les Voies méditatives CÁC PHAP MÔN THIỀN ĐỊNH


Les Voies méditatives

April 5, 2011 at 4:40pm

MEDITATION ET MEDITER

Selon le Larousse, " méditer " veut dire " soumettre à une profonde réflexion, à un examen, réfléchir profondément".

                                                                                

D'après le wikipedia,"le terme méditation (du latin meditatio), désigne une pratique mentale ou spirituelle qui consiste souvent, mais pas nécessairement, en une attention portée sur un certain objet de pensée comme méditer un principe philosophique par exemple, dans le but d'en approfondir le sens, ou réfléchir sur soi dans le but de pratique méditative afin de réaliser son "identité spirituelle" .

 

Les deux Voies de la Traditions Chinoise, le Confucianisme et le Taoisme, la Voie du Bouddhisme et celle du Soufisme de l'Islam sont elles des "Voies Méditatives"?

Theo Larousse, "thiền" có nghĩa là "trải qua sự quán tưởng sâu sắc, khảo sát, suy tư sâu sắc." Theo wikipedia, " từ ngữ "thiền" (meditatio Latin) đề cập đến một thực nghiệm trí não hoặc tinh thần thường là , nhưng không nhất thiết, là một sự chú ý vào một vấn đề thuộcvề tư tưởng như tập trung suy tư về một nguyên lý triết học  , với mục đích đào sâu ý nghĩa của nó, hoặc tự suy nghĩ về mình để thực hành thiền quán hầu đạt đươc " bản tâm" của hành giả.Hai đạo truyền thống Trung Quốc, Khổng giáo và Đạo giáo, Phật giáo và các đạo Sufi của Hồi giáo phải chăng cũng là những hệ phái (những đường lối)Thiền"?

 MEDITATION AND MEDITATION

According to Larousse, "meditate" means "to submit to a deep reflection, review, think deeply."

 

According to wikipedia, "the term meditation (Latin meditatio) refers to a mental or spiritual practice that is often, but not necessarily in a focus on some object of thought as a philosophical principle meditate for example, in the in order to deepen the meaning or reflect on itself in order to meditative practice to achieve his "spiritual identity".

 Two Ways of Chinese Traditions, Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism and the Way of the Sufi Islam are they the "Meditative Paths"?

 

                                                                               * * *

Toutes les Voies se rejoignent par l'objectif final vers quoi l'homme espère qu'elles le mènent. N'est ce pas que le but recherché de toute démarche spirituelle est une sorte de "Paix Suprême", une "Paix sans limite", qu'elle soit appelée Nirvana par les Bouddhistes, Paradis par les Chrétiens, ou réintégration dans l'Univers et retour vers le Un des Taoistes?

Tất cả các Đường tu  đều gặp nhau ở mục tiêu cuối cùng mà chúng hướng đến.Phải chăng cứu cánh của mọi hành trình tâm linh đều là " Đại tịnh" hay "Thanh tịnh vô biên" mà Phật tử gọi là Niết Bàn, Ki -Tô hữu gọi là Thiên đàng, hoặc hội nhập (huyền đồng) vào Vũ trụ và phản hồi vào cái "Một" của các "Đạo gia (tín đồ Lão giáo)?

 All routes meet the final goal to which man hope they lead. Is not that the goal of any spiritual journey is a sort of "Supreme Peace," a "Peace without limit," it is called by the Buddhist Nirvana, Heaven by Christians, or reinstatement in the Universe and return to the One Taoist?

 

                                                                              * * *

LA TRADITION EXTREME ORIENTALE

La tradition extrême orientale qui procure une voie progressive vers cette Paix Ultime et que nous allons étudier ici ne se différencie de la tradition de l'Occident, ou plutôt Moyen-Orientale, que par la façon d'y parvenir. Le retour vers le Dieu des Chrétiens, vers l'Allah des Musulmans, n'est il pas aussi le retour vers le Créateur, vers la Vérité, vers la Connaissance, vers l'Origine de la Création, vers le Un, origine de Tout?

TRUYỀN THỐNG VIỄN ĐÔNG

  Truyền thống Viễn Đông xây dựng một con đường tiến tới sự Thanh tịnh cuối cùng này, và  bằng cách đạt đến đó chúng ta sẽ học được sự không phân biệt với truyền thống của phương Tây, hay Trung Đông. Sự trở lại với Thiên Chúa của các Kitô hữu, của những người Hồi giáo đối với Allah, không phải là trở về với Đấng Tạo Hóa, về Chân lý, về Trí tuệ, về Nguồn gốcTạo hóa, với cái Một, cái khởi nguyên của vạn vật sao ?

 EXTREME EASTERN TRADITION

Far Eastern tradition that provides a progressive path to this Ultimate peace and that we will study here differs from the tradition of the West, or rather the Middle East, that the way to achieve it. The return to the God of the Christians, Muslims to Allah, is it not also the return to the Creator, to the Truth, to Knowledge, to the Origin of Creation, to the ONE, the origin of everythings

LA CREATION

Lao Tseu qui aurait vécu vers le milieu du 5è siècle av JC, avant de quitter le pays de sa naissance pour une finale retraite spirituelle dans l'Ouest de la Chine, laissa pour la postérité le seul recueil de son enseignement, le Tao Te King ou "le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu - certains traduisent de la Rectitude - ". Dans ce recueil, s'inspirant du Yi King, le "Traité canonique des mutations" hérité de la tradition chinoise qui datait de plusieurs milliers d'années avant JC, il parlait comme suit de la Création :

 SỰ  SANH HÓA (TẠO HÓA)

Lão Tử sống vào giữa thế kỹ thứ V trước  JC, trước khi từ giả quê hương để  ẩn dật tu dưỡng tâm linh  lần cuối cùng tại Miền Tây Trung Hoa, đã để lại di ngôn giáo đạo duy nhất của Ngài cho hậu thế là Đạo Đức Kinh, tức sách  (dạy) Đạo và Đức – có một vài người đã dịch là  « Sách Chân truyền ». Quyển kinh này, hàm ẩn  tinh hoa Kinh Dịch, tức «  Các nguyên tắc biến dịch » thừa kế truyền thống Trung Hoa đã có từ nhiều nàn năm trước JC, đã giảng về sự Sanh hóa vạn vật như sau :

"Le Tao donna naissance à Un

Un donna naissance à Deux

Deux donna naissance à Trois

Trois donna naissance aux dix mille êtres

Tout être porte sur son dos l'obscurité et serre dans ses bras la lumière,

Le souffle indifférencié [1]constitue son harmonie"

 

Le "Tao " évoqué par Lao Tseu est traduit littéralement par " Voie". Mais c'est le Principe Suprême qui est à la fois l’Origine et la Fin de tous les êtres. Il a la forme de ce qui n'a pas de forme, et l'image de ce qui n'a pas d'image. Il ne crée pas le monde comme quelque chose de distinct de lui, car il n'est jamais séparé de la nature et des êtres, il "est" la nature et les êtres. Il ne crée pas, il engendre. Et aucun nom approprié ne peut lui être associé.

 

"Le Tao que l'on peut nommer n’est pas le Tao éternel, disait Lao Tseu,

Le nom que l'on peut nommer n'est pas le nom éternel.

Sans nom, il représente l’Univers

Avec un nom, il constitue la Mère de tous les êtres".

 

Le " Un " représente le Souffle Primordial, l’Unité/Totalité Première, l'Energie Vitale Universelle et Originelle, passé et présent, sans opposé, infini et éternel, né du Tao le Principe Suprême.

 

Le " Deux " qui correspond au Yin et au Yang produisit les trois souffles–énergies: le pur, l’impur et le mélangé, qui à leur tour, constituèrent respectivement le Ciel qui est Yang, la Terre qui est Yin, et l’Homme qui est un mélange de Yang et de Yin.

 

Le "Trois" est la Grande Triade Chinoise, Ciel, Terre et Homme qui génère toute la Création par combinaison de Yin et Yang.

"Dao đã sinh Một

Một đã sinh hai

 Hai đã sinh ba

Ba sinh vạn vật

 Mỗi vật cõng dương và bồng âm

 Khí hiệp nhất làm nên sự hài hòa

 

 " Cái "Đạo" gợi lên bởi Lão Tử được dịch theo nghĩa đen là "Con đường." Nhưng nó là Nguyên lý tối cao, vừa là nguồn gốc vừa là cứu cánh của muôn loài. Nó có hình dạng của những gì không có hình, và hình ảnh của cái không có hình ảnh. Nó không tạo ra thế giới như là một cái gì đó tách biệt với nó, vì nó không bao giờ xa rời bản chất của vạn vật. Nó vừa là bản chất vừa là các vật. Nó không tạo dựng mà thể nhập. Và không có tên riêng nào có thể phù hợp với nó.

 

" Đạo mà có thể được đặt tên không phải là Đạo vĩnh cửu, Lão Tử nói,

 Tên có thể gọi nó không phải là tên muôn đời.

Không tên, nó là vũ trụ

Có tên, đó là Mẹ của chúng sinh.

 " Một" Khí Nguyên thủy,là cái Duy nhất / cái Tổng thể ban sơ, cái Khí lực sống phổ quát và là Căn nguyên, quá khứ và hiện tại không mâu thuẩn, vô biên, hằng cửu, sinh từ ĐẠO là Nguyên lý siêu việt.

Hai" là Yin (Âm) và Yang (Dương) sản xuất ba khí lực: tinh khiết, không tinh khiết và hỗn hợp, từ đó hình thành trời là Yang (Dương) tương ứng;  đất là Yin (Âm), và Người là một hỗn hợp của Yang và Yin.

 "Ba" là Tam Tài theo Trung Hoa, Trời, Đất và Người tạo ra tất cả sự sáng tạo bằng cách kết hợp Yin và Yang.

 

 CREATION

Lao Tzu who lived in the mid 5th century BC, before leaving the country of his birth  for a final retreat in western China, left for posterity the only collection of its teaching, the Tao Te Ching or "Book of the Way and Virtue – someone  translated as Righteousness -". In this collection, inspired by the I Ching, the "canonical Treaty change" inherited from the Chinese tradition dating back thousands of years BC, he spoke as follows of Creation:

 

"The Tao gave birth to One

One gave birth to Two

Two gave birth to Three

Three gave birth to the ten thousand things

Every being  carries the Yin on its back and theYang in its arms

Undifferentiated blast[2] of Yin and Yang is harmony "

 The "Tao" mentioned by Lao Tzu is literally translated as "Way." But it is the Supreme Principle is both the origin and the end of all beings. It has the shape of which has no form, and image that has no picture. It does not create the world as something separate from him because he is never separated from nature and human beings, it "is" the nature and beings. It does not, it creates. And no appropriate name can be associated with it.

 "The Tao that can be named is not the eternal Tao, Lao Tzu said,

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

Unnamed, he is the Universe

With a name, it is the Mother of all beings. "

 

The "A" represents the Primordial Breath, Unit / Entire First, the Universal Life Energy and Primordial, past and present, without opposite, infinite and eternal, born Tao of the Supreme Principle.

The "Two" which is the Yin and Yang produced three breaths-energy: pure, impure and mixed, which in turn formed respectively Heaven is Yang, Earth is Yin, and man who is a mixture of Yin and Yang.

 The "Three" is the Great Chinese Triad, Heaven, Earth and Man generates all creation by combination of Yin and Yang.

 

LE YIN ET LE YANG

Le "Yang " est le principe masculin, actif, créateur, lumineux qui est associé au ciel, au soleil. Le " Yin "est le principe féminin, passif, existentiel, obscur, qui est associé à la terre, à la lune.

 

Les deux principes Yin et Yang sont présents dans toutes choses et s’équilibrent continuellement de façon dynamique. De nombreuses pièces de monnaie anciennes de Chine sont rondes avec au milieu un trou carré, et beaucoup d’histoires mythiques ou légendaires de ce pays tournent autour de ces deux figures géométriques qui représentent l’une, le carré ( qui peut être dessiné avec... une équerre), la Terre, le monde matériel, le Yin, et l’autre, le cercle (qui peut être dessiné avec... un compas), le Ciel, le monde spirituel, le Yang.

 

Dans Yang il y a Yin et vice versa dans Yin il y a Yang. Il n'existe pas de Yang absolu ni de Yin absolu, et cela est figuré très justement par la "Roue de Lao Tseu" qui est "le ruban de Moebius". Prenez un ruban par les deux bouts, et collez ceux-ci en les retournant, c'est le ruban de Moebius. A tout niveau du ruban, on constate la présence des deux faces, comme Yin et Yang sont présents dans chaque aspect de la vie et de ce qui est créé.

 

Tout ce qui existe peut être décrit en terme de Yin et Yang car ceux-ci se trouvent en toute chose en trois types de relation: (1) en relation d'Opposition tout en sachant que l'un porte en lui le germe de l'autre, (2) en relation d'Interdépendance, car l'un ne se conçoit pas sans l'autre, l'excès ou la déficience de l'un entraînant des conséquences sur l'autre ainsi qu'un déséquilibre de l'ensemble, et (3) en relation d'Engendrement et de Mutation de l'un en l'autre.

 

Ainsi, les médecins chinois traditionnels s'occupent à conserver et à rétablir l'équilibre entre le Yin et le Yang dans le corps de leurs patients, car la maladie est la conséquence d'un déséquilibre non soigné qui peut ne pas être à l'endroit même où l'on a mal.

 

Il faut encore ajouter que le Changement est la loi unique qui régit Tout. Rien n'est fixe, il n'y a pas de dogme. Par exemple, dans une famille composée de la mère, du père et du fils, la mère est Yin (essence féminin) par rapport au mari. Mais elle sera Yang (essence masculin) par rapport à son fils aussi longtemps qu'elle le nourrira. Quant à l'enfant, Yin (càd essence féminin) à sa naissance par rapport à son père et sa mère, il devient Yang (essence masculin) par rapport à sa mère à son adolescence. Mais il demeure Yin (essence féminin) par rapport à son père, jusqu'à son âge adulte. Tandis que pour tout étranger au cercle de famille, ce rejeton mâle sera Yang (essence masculin) de sa naissance à sa mort.

 

Et devant tout celà, que doit faire l'homme pour accéder à la Paix Suprême?

 

la Tradition Chinoise propose deux démarches, l'une, le Confucianisme, et l'autre, le Taoisme qui complète la première.

 THE YIN AND YANG

The "Yang" is the masculine principle, active, creative, bright, which is associated with the sky, the sun. The "Yin" is the feminine principle, passive, existential, obscure, which is associated with the earth to the moon.

 Both yin and yang principles are present in all things and balance continually dynamically. Many pieces of ancient Chinese coins are round with a square hole in the middle, and lots of mythical or legendary stories of this country revolve around these two geometric figures that are one, the square (which can be drawn with. .. a square), the earth, the material world, the Yin and the other, the circle (which can be drawn with a compass ...), Heaven, the spiritual world, Yang.

 In Yang there is Yin and vice versa in Yin Yang there. There is no absolute or absolute Yin Yang, and this is rightly figured by the "Wheel of Lao Tzu" which is "the Möbius strip." Take a tape at both ends, and stick them in the back, the Moebius strip. At any level of the tape, there is the presence of two faces, like Yin and Yang are present in every aspect of life and what is created.

 Anything that can be described in terms of Yin and Yang as they are in all things into three types of relationship exists: (1) in relation Opposition knowing that one carries within it the seeds of other, (2) Interdependence relationship because one can not be conceived without the other, excess or deficiency of one with consequences on the other and an imbalance of together, and (3) in relation generative and Mutation of one into the other.

 Thus, traditional Chinese doctors concerned to preserve and restore the balance between Yin and Yang in the body of their patients because the disease is the result of an untreated imbalance may not be the place where it hurts.

 It should be added that the change is the only law that governs all. Nothing is fixed, there is no dogma. For example, in a family of mother, father and son, the mother is Yin (feminine gasoline) from the husband. But it will be Yang (male gasoline) to his son as long as they feed. As for the child, Yin (ie gasoline female) at birth compared to his father and his mother, it becomes Yang (male gasoline) from her mother as a teenager. But it remains Yin (feminine gasoline) from his father, until his adulthood. While for any foreigner in the family circle, the male offspring will be Yang (male gasoline) from his birth to his death.

 

And before all this, what should the man to go to the Supreme Peace?

 Chinese Tradition offers two approaches, one, Confucianism, and the other, Taoism that completes the first.

 

LA DEMARCHE CONFUCEENNE

La première démarche se situe au niveau de notre vie de tous les jours et est à la portée de tout le monde. Maître Kong càd Confucius qui vécut de 551 à 479 av JC l'aurait reprise de la partie exotérique de la tradition chinoise .

           Confucian APPROACH

The first step lies in our everyday life and is accessible to everyone. Master Kong ie Confucius who lived from 551-479 BC would resume the exoteric part of Chinese tradition.

                                                        

UNE VOIE DE VIE EN SOCIETE

Pour lui (1), "le bon fonctionnement d'une société passe obligatoirement par la connaissance d'un ordre cosmique supérieur porteur de préceptes universels, et par la reconnaissance d'un ordre intime propre à la nature humaine. Car dès lors que l'homme se ressent porteur de la plus grande Vertu qui soit et qu'il nomme " noblesse du ciel ", il se découvre uni à l'infini comme avec les autres et comprend que l'ordre social ne peut émaner que de sa volonté de développer la perfection qui est en lui".

 

Dans ce sens, Confucius (2) considère qu'il incombe à chacun de travailler et développer en soi la sagesse indispensable pour que l'harmonie entre Ciel, Terre et Homme soit maintenue, càd de mener une vie exemplaire suivant la "volonté du Ciel", ne faisant qu'un avec elle, par des comportements propres forgés selon un certain nombre de principes essentielles basées sur l'amour pour autrui comme pour soi-même.

 

Il préconise le respect de l'ordre familial, d'une morale stricte en société, et la pratique de la Voie du Milieu. Sur le plan politique le gouvernant doit pouvoir développer en lui la sagesse pour faire passer le bien-être de ses sujets avant le sien, qui est la condition indispensable pour que les autres suivent son exemple et soient eux-mêmes instigateurs de prospérité et de bonheur.

"La clé de l'enseignement de Confucius, c'est la vertu de l'étude. D'où le système des examens, destiné à recruter les fonctionnaires, qui va se mettre en place en Chine et durer jusqu'en 1906 et qui va être longtemps copié par les pays limitrophes, Corée, Japon et Vietnam".

 

"Confucius insiste aussi sur la pratique des six "arts": la musique (lui- même jouait du luth), la calligraphie, la science des nombres (les mathématiques), le tir à l'arc, la danse et la conduite des chars (conscience de l'animal, maîtrise de la vitesse)".

 

Ainsi, comme la médecine chinoise se préoccupe avant tout de soigner la cause du mal et non seulement le mal, la doctrine confucéenne propose de soigner la cause profonde des désordres sociaux.

 

Enfant, j'ai été inculqué par la famille et par l'école de dictons simples, faciles à retenir et plein de bon sens qui me sont restés en mémoire. Ainsi, l'homme parfait doit posséder les cinq qualités essentielles que sont la bonté, la droiture, la bienséance, la sagesse et la loyauté. ( en Vietnamien "Nhân, Nghỉa, Lể, Trí, Tín"). Il doit savoir par ordre de priorité, s'occuper de sa famille, gouverner le pays et pacifier le monde (en Vietnamien "tề gia, trị quốc, bình thiên hạ") . Une jeune fille doit savoir être habile de ses mains, se faire belle, bien s'exprimer et bien se comporter ( "công, dung, ngôn, hạnh"). Enfant, une femme s'occupe de ses parents, mariée, elle s'occupe de son mari, mère, elle s'occupe de ses enfants, etc...

 

Selon René Guénon, il y aurait trois niveaux dans le Confucianisme. Il y a "le Lettré qui regarde le Savant, le Savant qui regarde le Sage, et le Sage qui regarde le Ciel".

                                                                    A WAY OF LIFE IN SOCIETY

For him (1) "the proper functioning of a society must go with the knowledge of a cosmic order upper carrying universal precepts, and by the recognition of a specific human nature intimate order. As soon as the man feels the largest holder of Virtue and that which is called "nobility of heaven", he discovered united to infinity as with others and understands that social order can only come from its willingness to develop the perfection that is in him. "

 In this sense, Confucius (2) considers that it is for everyone to work and develop in itself the essential wisdom for harmony between Heaven, Earth and Man is maintained, ie to lead an exemplary life following the "will of Heaven "being one with it through their own behavior forged in a number of key principles based on love for others and for oneself.

 It advocates respect for the family order, a strict moral code in society, and the practice of the Middle Way. Politically the governor must develop in him the wisdom to move the welfare of his subjects before his own, which is the indispensable condition for others to follow his example and be themselves instigators of prosperity and happiness .

"The key to the teaching of Confucius, it is under study. Hence the examination system for recruiting staff, which will be set up in China and last until 1906 and that will long be copied by neighboring countries, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. "

 "Confucius also emphasized the practice of the six" art "music (himself played the lute), calligraphy, the science of numbers (math), the archery, dancing and driving tanks (consciousness of the animal, speed control). "

 Thus, as Chinese medicine is primarily concerned to treat the cause of evil, not just evil, Confucian doctrine proposes to treat the root cause of social unrest.

 Child, I was taught by the family and school sayings simple, easy to remember and full of common sense that remained in my memory. Thus, the perfect man must have five essential qualities of goodness, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and loyalty. (In Vietnamese "Nhan, Nghia Le, Trí Tin"). They need to know in order of priority, to take care of his family, govern the country and bring peace to the world (in Vietnamese "Tề  gia tri quốc Bình thiên hạ"). A girl should know how to be good with his hands, be beautiful, well-spoken and well behaved ("công, dung, Ngôn Hạnh"). Child, a woman takes care of her parents, married, she takes care of her husband and mother, she takes care of her children, etc ...

According to Rene Guenon, there are three levels in Confucianism. There is "the scholar who looks at the Savant, the scientist who looks at the Sage, and Sage watching heaven."

 

 

                                                                  * * *

LA DEMARCHE TAOISTE

Un pas de plus vers l'avant, au delà de l'enseignement de Maitre Kong, et l'on découvre que l'équilibre serein obtenu grâce à une vie de vertu à l'écart des extrêmes ne constitue pas encore le summum de la démarche. Elle n'est que la condition nécessaire pour accéder à une autre Voie beaucoup moins accessible au commun des mortels, la Voie du Tao, enseignée par Lao Tseu et plusieurs Maîtres Taoistes qui avaient suivi ses traces.

 

René Guénon, encore lui, dit que le Confucéen est comme sur l'horizontale d'une croix, cherchant à rejoindre le point du milieu et regardant vers le ciel, que le Taoiste se trouve sur la verticale qui s'élève à partir de ce point et que le niveau le plus haut du Confucianisme, celui du sage, est celui le plus bas du Taoisme.

 

Selon certains, Lao Tseu aurait repris la partie ésotérique de la Tradition Chinoise pour exprimer cette seconde démarche.

 

Lao Tseu nous explique la Voie Taoiste  dans le recueil qu'il avait laissé, le Tao Te King:

 

" Depuis l’origine, disait il, des êtres ont atteint à l’ " Un ".

Le ciel en accédant à l’ " Un " devint pur,

La Terre en accédant à l’ " Un" devint paisible,

Les esprits en accédant à l’ "Un" devinrent efficients,

Les vallées en accédant à l’ "Un" se remplirent,

Les êtres en accédant à l’ "Un" se multiplièrent,

Les princes et seigneurs en accédant à l’"Un" devinrent l’exemple de l’Univers".

 

"Atteins à la suprême vacuité (3)

Et maintiens toi en quiétude,

Devant l’agitation fourmillante des êtres,

Ne contemple que leur Retour.

En effet, chaque être accomplit sa croissance

Puis retourne à sa racine. "

 

Le « Un », je vous en avais déjà parlé, est le Souffle Primordial, l’ « Unité Première ».

 

L'histoire suivante, tirée du l'ouvrage de Lie Tseu, l'un des principaux grands Maîtres Taoistes, illustre d'une certaine manière la Voie Taoiste.

 

C’était au temps où Lie Tseu lui même cherchait encore à apprendre auprès du grand maître Lao Chan.

 

"Quand je suis devenu disciple de mon maître, dit il, c'est seulement après trois ans passés à avoir peur de juger intérieurement et extérieurement et de qualifier quelconque par des paroles, qu'il m'honora pour la première fois d'un regard.

 

Au bout de cinq ans, quand j'arrive à juger au fond de moi même ce qui est juste et ce qui ne l'est pas, et à distinguer par la parole entre ce qui est bon et ce qui est mauvais, mon maître alors me sourit pour la première fois.

 

Au bout de sept ans, quand naturellement est effacée dans mon esprit la distinction entre le juste et le mauvais, et dans mes paroles celle entre l'avantage et l'inconvénient, mon maître, pour la première fois, me fit asseoir sur sa natte.

 

Au bout de neuf ans, quand j'eu perdu la notion du juste et de l'injuste, du bien et du mal, en moi aussi bien que vis à vis des autres, alors en moi s'établit la communion parfaite entre le monde extérieur et mon intimité foncière, je ne distinguai plus le Maître comme un Maître, ni un ami comme un ami.

 

Ne plus distinguer intérieur et extérieur, c'est sentir la vue comme l"ouïe, l'ouïe comme l'odorat, l'odorat comme le goût, tous intégrés en un seul tout. Mon coeur est comme ne battant plus, mon corps comme complètement délivré, ma chair et mes os comme dissolus, je ne sens plus que mon corps s'appuie sur quelque chose ou que mes pieds se reposent sur la terre. Je suis le vent passant de l'Est en Ouest, comme une feuille détachée de sa branche, comme un fruit sorti de son arbre, je ne sais plus si c'est le vent qui me porte ou c'est moi qui porte le vent. "

TAOIST APPROACH

One more step forward, beyond the teaching of Master Kong, and it is discovered that the serene balance achieved through a life away under extreme is not yet the ultimate approach. It is only necessary to go to another road much less accessible to ordinary condition, the Tao, Lao Tzu and taught by several Taoist masters who followed in his footsteps.

 Rene Guenon, once again, said that the Confucian is like a horizontal cross, trying to reach the midpoint and looking up to heaven, the Taoist is on the vertical which rises from the Point and the highest level of Confucianism, the sage, is the lowest of Taoism.

 According to some, Lao Tzu would have taken the esoteric part of the Chinese tradition to express this second approach.

 Laozi Taoist Way explains in the book that he had left, the Tao Te Ching:

 "From the beginning, he said, human beings have achieved the" A ".

Heaven by accessing the "One" became pure

Earth by accessing the "One" became quiet,

Minds by accessing the "One" became effective,

Valleys by accessing the "A" filled,

Beings by accessing the "A" multiplied,

Princes and lords by accessing the "One" became the example of the Universe. "

 

"Reach the Supreme emptiness (3)

And you stand in peace,

Before the teeming bustle of beings

Not contemplate their back.

Indeed, every being accomplished its growth

Then returns to its root. "

 

The "A", I had already told you, is the Primordial Breath, the "First Unit".

 The following story, taken from the book Lie Tzu, a major Taoist great Masters illustrates somehow Taoist Way.

 This was the time when Lie Tzu himself still trying to learn from the great master Lao Chan.

 "When I became a disciple of my master, he said, it was only after three years to be afraid to try internally and externally and qualify by any words, he honored me for the first time a look.

 After five years, when I get to the bottom of judging myself what is right and what is not, and distinguished by the word between what is good and what is bad, then my master smiled for the first time.

 After seven years, when naturally be erased in my mind the distinction between right and wrong, and in my words that between advantage and disadvantage, my master, for the first time, made me sit on his mat .

 After nine years, when I had lost all sense of right and wrong, good and evil, me as well as with respect to others, so I stood in the perfect communion between the world outside my property and privacy, I could distinguish the Master as a master or a friend as a friend.

 Not distinguish inside and outside, is to feel the view as "hearing, hearing, smell like, smell like taste, all integrated into a single whole. My heart is beating like more, my body as completely delivered, my flesh and bones as dissolute, I do not feel that my body is based on something or that my feet are resting on the ground. I am the wind from the East to West, like a leaf detached from his arm, like a fruit out of the tree, I do not know if it is the wind that carries me or me bringing the wind. "

 

                                                                            Le Tao

Il ne s'agit donc pas de se mettre dans une des deux positions de la dualité pour combattre l'autre, de faire disparaître le Yin, le noir, pour ne garder que le Yang, le blanc. Car le noir Yin reviendrait comme le blanc Yang partirait, et le cycle perpétuel continuerait. Car cela correspondrait à rester dans les contradictions de ce qui a été Créé, sans vraiment chercher à s'en échapper pour entamer la route de retour vers l'Origine.

 

La Voie Taoiste consiste à chercher à arriver à ne plus différencier le mal du bien, à recevoir et accepter tranquillement amour et haine, blanc et noir, joie et peine, à ne pas sentir, ni voir, ni vivre des Yin et des Yang différenciés, de ce qui est Créé, pour accéder à la communion intime de soi même avec tout ce qui nous environne.

 

C'est une Voie qui propose des pratiques, un style de vie, des exercices, qui permettent de relier, d'harmoniser le yin et le yang, la terre et le ciel, c'est-à-dire le visible et l'invisible.

                                                                              the Tao

It is therefore not to get into one of two positions of duality to fight each other, to eliminate the Yin, the dark, keeping only the Yang, white. Because the black Yin Yang would like white go away, and the perpetual cycle would continue. Because this would correspond to remain in the contradictions of what has been created, without really trying to escape to begin the road back to the Origin.

 

Taoist Way is to seek to achieve not differentiate good from evil, to receive and accept quietly love and hate, black and white, joy and sorrow, not feel, see or experience of Yin and Yang differentiated , what is created, to access the intimate communion of itself with all that surrounds us.

 

This is a Way that offers practical, lifestyle, exercises, that connect to harmonize yin and yang, heaven and earth, that is to say, the visible and the invisible.

 

LE WU WEI

 Il y a la pratique du Wu Wei (Vo Vi  en Vietnamien), qui est souvent traduit par "Non effort", "Non Agir". C'est (4) "le principe d’action du sage qui agit en harmonie avec le Tao, à l’extérieur comme à l’intérieur". Selon John Blofeld, il s’agit de " [...] ne pas aller au-delà de l’action spontanée qui est adaptée aux besoins tels qu’ils se présentent, de ne pas s’engager dans des actions savamment calculées et de ne pas agir avec l’intention de dépasser le strict minimum nécessaire pour obtenir les résultats voulus. " . C'est en quelque sorte un laisser agir le naturel et la nature, faire corps avec celle ci, ne pas aller contre elle et laisser de côté ce qui n'est finalement qu'illusoire et illusion, un "agir par le non agir". Il suppose que "l’on développe le sentiment d’être un canal par lequel agit le Tao." Comme le suggère le Yi King , le "Traité canonique des mutations" de la Tradition Chinoise, "l’homme parvient à l’éternité en ce qu’il ne veut pas tout faire de lui-même en se glorifiant de ses propres forces, mais s’ouvre paisiblement et à chaque instant aux impulsions émanant des profondeurs des forces créatrices. ".

 

"Parvenir à l’éternité, c’est vivre avec la conscience de l’éternité laquelle est considérée comme un état d’esprit. L’éternité ne peut pas se trouver dans l’avenir pas plus qu’elle ne se trouve dans le passé. Le temps comme nous l’entendons, comme nous le percevons, n’existe qu’au plan matériel. L’éternité pourtant s’y trouve aussi mais voilée par le temps. Elle est dans l’instant présent, ici et maintenant.

 

Le wu-wei consiste donc à être " intérieurement disponible ", "abandonné à la volonté céleste" qui procède de la dynamique supérieure. Comme la nature, la " volonté céleste " est partout, elle est l’Intelligence universelle: en devenir à l’extérieur et immobile à l’intérieur de chacun. À l’extérieur, elle se manifeste par les événements, les circonstances, les conditions de la vie – auxquels il faut s’adapter. Car il faut être comme l’eau, qui épouse les méandres de la rivière, qui subit toutes les transformations – non pas de sa nature profonde qui est d’être eau, mais celles que lui imposent les méandres que sont les événements, les circonstances, les conditions – avant de se fondre dans l’océan d’où elle est issue".

 THE WU WEI

  There is the practice of Wu Wei (Vo Vi in Vietnamese), which is often translated as "No stress", "No Action". It is (4) "the principle of action of the sage who is in harmony with the Tao, outside and inside." According to John Blofeld, it is "[...] do not go beyond the spontaneous action that is tailored to needs as they arise, not to engage in actions carefully calculated and not act with the intention to exceed the minimum necessary to achieve the desired. "results. This is a kind of leave it natural and nature become one with this one, do not go against it and let go of what is ultimately an illusion and illusion, an "act by not acting" . It assumes that "one develops the feeling of being a channel through which is the Tao." As suggested by the I Ching, the "canonical Treaty mutations" of the Chinese Tradition, "the man manages to eternity in that it does not want to do everything himself glorying in its own strength, but opens peacefully and every moment impulses emanating from the depths of creative forces. ".

 

"Reaching eternity is to live with the awareness of eternity which is considered a state of mind. Eternity can not be in the future any more than it is in the past. time as we understand it, as we perceive, exists only in material terms. but eternity is also there but obscured by time. It is in the present moment, here and now .

 

Wu-wei is therefore to be "internally available", "abandoned to the divine will," which comes from the upper dynamics. Like nature, the "divine will" is everywhere, it is the universal Intelligence becoming outside and still inside each. Outside, it is manifested by events, circumstances, conditions of life - which we must adapt. For it must be like water, the meandering of the river, which undergoes all the changes - not his true nature is to be water, but those imposed on the intricacies that are events, circumstances the conditions - before melting into the ocean where it comes from. "

 

LA MEDITATION

Au delà de la méditation faite pour comprendre le plus profond de soi même, les Taoistes pratiquent une alchimie interne dont le sens est la fusion du Yin et du Yang des trois composants essentielles de l'être humain, (trois joyaux,  sanbao 三寶, tam bảo en vietnamien) que sont l’essence (jing en chinois, tinh en Vietnamien ), le souffle (qi en chinois, khí en vietnamien) et l’esprit (shen en chinois, thần en vietnamien).

 

Ces trois composantes doivent régresser à leur état originel par l’ascèse et la méditation avec de nombreux exercices dont l'ultime étape est l'obtention ce qui est appelé le "grand élixir de retour" (dahuandan 大還丹), un embryon cosmique purement Yang qui ira vers le Ciel, symbole de l'éternité, pour revenir à l'unité primordiale du Tao, poussant ce qui reste de Yin vers la Terre.

 

         Développement de l’embryon cosmique, un des processus de l’alchimie interne taoïste

Mon propre grand père quitta le monde en pleine méditation à la date qu'il avait annoncée, càd après 9 ans 81 jours resté à méditer dans une tour sans en descendre. Ce cas n'est pas unique et se retrouve autant chez les Maîtres Taoistes que chez les Vénérables Bouddhistes de haut niveau.

 MEDITATION

Beyond meditation made to understand the depths of oneself, the Taoist internal alchemy practice whose meaning is the fusion of Yin and Yang of the three essential components of the human being (three jewels Sanbao 三寶, tam Bao Vietnamese) that are the essence (jing Chinese, tinh in Vietnamese), breath (qi Chinese, Vietnamese KHI) and spirit (shen Chinese than in Vietnamese).

 

These three components must regress to their original state by asceticism and meditation with many years that the final step is to obtain what is called the "great elixir of return" (dahuandan ), a cosmic embryo Yang purely go to Heaven, a symbol of eternity, to return to the primordial unity of the Tao, pushing what remains of Yin to Earth.

 

          Development of cosmic embryo, a process of Taoist internal alchemy

My own grandfather left the world meditating on the day he announced, ie after 9 years 81 days left to meditate in a tower without dismounting. This case is not unique and is found in the Taoist Masters as well as in high-level Buddhist Venerable.

 

                                                                              * * *

LE BOUDDHISME

Le fondateur du Bouddhisme, le Bouddha ( c'est à dire l'Eveillé) Shakyamuni, vécut, on le pense de 563 à 483 av JC. Frédéric Renoir qui a comparé sa vie à celle de Jésus, notait qu'au contraire de celui ci qui est Dieu, qui n'hésite pas à profiter de la bombance dans les fêtes comme un simple homme, et qui est représenté en pleine souffrance sur une croix, Bouddha est un simple homme qui vivait en ascète, en Saint, et qui est représenté par un sage aux traits paisibles et sereins.

 

Né prince, quatre rencontres, la maladie, la vieillesse, la mort et un cherchant menant une vie errante, lui révélèrent des vérités bouleversantes qui l'amenèrent à tout abandonner pour se consacrer entièrement à la quête spirituelle. Après six ans d'ascèse sans résultat, il s'asseya au pied de l'arbre Boddhi et médita jusqu"au jour où il obtint l' "Eveil", "l'Illumination", la "Compréhension totale et complète". Il vit comment l'attachement qui est source de toute souffrance, prend sa racine dans l'ignorance.

 

Ce que Bouddha dit en substance (5), c'est que "si vous voulez découvrir la véritable source de vos problèmes, il vous faut chercher à l'intérieur de vous même. La souffrance n'est pas une punition que vous infligent d'autres personnes, ni les situations de la vie, ni aucune force surnaturelle en dehors de vous même. La souffrance ne vous est pas non plus infligée sans raison, ce n'est pas simplement aléatoire dans un univers qui serait dénué de sens et gouverné par la loi du hasard. Au contraire la souffrance ou l'insatisfaction que vous ressentez est directement lié aux attitudes qui émergent de votre coeur et de votre esprit".

BUDDHISM

The founder of Buddhism, the Buddha (ie the Buddha) Shakyamuni lived, it is thought to 563-483 BC. Frederic Renoir who compared his life to that of Jesus, noted that, unlike this one which is God, who does not hesitate to enjoy the feast at parties as a man, and is represented in full on suffering a cross, Buddha is a simple man who lived an ascetic in Saint, and is represented by the wise peaceful and serene features.

 

Born prince, four meetings, disease, old age, death and seeking leading a wandering life, he revealed some disturbing truths which led him to give up everything to devote himself entirely to the spiritual quest. After six years of asceticism without result, it asseya the foot of the Bodhi tree and meditated until "the day when he won the" Awakening "," enlightenment "," total and complete understanding. "He saw how the attachment that is the source of all suffering is rooted in ignorance.

 

Buddha said that in substance (5), is that "if you want to discover the true source of your problems, you have to look inside yourself. Suffering is not a punishment you inflict d other persons, or situations of life, nor any supernatural force outside of yourself. the suffering you inflicted is not without reason, it is not simply random in a world that would be meaningless and governed by the law of chance. Instead of suffering or dissatisfaction you feel is directly related to attitudes that emerge from your heart and your mind. "

 

 

LES QUATRE NOBLES VERITES ET LE SENTIER OCTUPLE

Il énonça les quatre Nobles Vérités. Celui ci est le du sentier qui mène à la cessation de la souffrance, et 4) de la cessation de la soufrance, 3) de la cause de la souffrance, 2) de la souffrance: 1) Noble sentier Octuple càd 1) la compréhension juste, 2) la pensée juste, 3) la parole juste, 4) l'action juste, 5) les moyens d'existence justes, 6) l'effort juste, 7) l'attention juste, 8) la concentration juste.

 

Le Bouddhisme nous encourage à nous servir de la gamme complète de nos facultés mentales, émotionnelles et spirituelles et de notre intelligence, au lieu de simplement placer aveuglement notre foi dans ce que des autorités du passé ont dit. Il donne aux gens qui le pratiquent un moyen de trouver des réponses aux grandes questions de la vie comme "Qui suis je?", "Pourquoi est ce que j'existe", "Quel est le sens de la vie, Pourquoi souffrons nous?, " Comment puis je réaliser un bonheur durable?"

 

Il n'est pas du tout un système de croyance bien qu'il pose certains principes. "N'acceptez rien que je dise comme étant vrai simplement parce que c'est moi qui le dit, dit Bouddha . Au contraire testez cet enseignement comme si vous étiez un orfèvre testant la qualité de son or. Si après avoir examiné mes préceptes , vous trouvez qu'ils sont vrais, alors mettez les en pratique. Mais ne les mettez pas en pratique simplement par respect pour moi."

 

Il n'a pas non plus la préoccupation de la présence d'une puissance surnaturelle. Un jour, en réponse aux deux questions que lui posait un moine du nom de Malunkyaputta, "l'Univers a t'il un début et une fin" et "le Bouddha existe t'il après la mort", Bouddha prit l'exemple d'un homme blessé par une flèche empoisonnée qui veut savoir qui l'a blessé, de quel caste, de quel village il vient et de quel bois la flèche est faite avant de laisser se faire soigner. "Il est clair, dit il que cet homme mourrait bien avant que toutes ces questions aient obtenu de réponse. Car, remarqua t'il, que l'Univers soit éternel ou pas, vous serez toujours confronté à la naissance, à la décrépitude et à la mort, de même qu'aux soucis , au chagrin, et au désespoir, contre lesquels je vous prescris dès maintenant l'antidote".

  

FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS AND Eightfold Path

He enunciated the four noble truths. This one is the trail that leads to the cessation of suffering, and 4) the cessation of displeasure, 3) the cause of suffering, 2) suffering: 1) Noble Eightfold path ie 1) understanding right, 2) just thinking, 3) right speech, 4) right, work 5) right livelihood, 6) right effort, 7) right mindfulness, 8) right concentration.

 

Buddhism encourages us to use the full range of our mental, emotional and spiritual faculties and our intelligence, instead of just blindly put our faith in what the authorities in the past have said. It gives people who practice a way to find answers to the big questions of life as "Who am I?", "Why do I exist", "What is the meaning of life, why we suffer? "How can I achieve lasting happiness?"

 

It is not a belief system while it lays down certain principles. "Do not accept anything I say to be true simply because it is me who says, Buddha said. Instead try this as if you were teaching a goldsmith testing the quality of gold. If after reviewing my commandments, you find that they are true, then put them into practice. But do not put them into practice simply out of respect for me. "

 

It does not have the concern of the presence of a supernatural power. One day, in response to two questions put to him by a monk named Malunkyaputta, "the Universe there a beginning and an end" and "the Buddha you are there after death," Buddha took the example a man wounded by a poisoned arrow that wants to know who was injured, what caste, which village he comes from and what kind of wood the arrow is made before leaving treatment. "It is clear, he said that the man would die before all these questions have been answered. Because, you noticed it, that the universe is eternal or not, you will always be confronted with the birth, decay and death, as well as worry, grief, and despair, against which I command you now antidote. "

 

CYCLE DES RENAISSANCES (Samsara) ET LES ACTIONS PASSEES (Karma)

Les hommes sont assujettis au Samsāra càd le cycle des renaissances. Le « monde » (Loka) dans lequel ils renaîtront après leur mort dépendra de leur karma, c'est-à-dire de leurs actions passées. Cette renaissance ne fait donc que prolonger indéfiniment la souffrance. Conformément à la philosophie bouddhiste, ce n'est ni le même, ni un autre qui renaît. Ce n'est donc pas, comme dans le principe de la réincarnation, une âme immortelle qui se "réincarne". En effet, la notion de réincarnation implique l’existence d’une âme immortelle qui entre et sort d’un corps et entre à nouveau dans un autre, alors que selon la croyance bouddhiste, il n’existe rien de tel. Ce qui subsisterait après la mort ne serait pas une " âme ", mais une énergie psychique qui réapparaîtrait ensuite sous une autre forme lors de la renaissance.

 Cycle of rebirth (Samsara) AND PAST ACTIONS (Karma)

Men are subject to Samsara ie the cycle of rebirths. The "world" (Loka) in which they will be reborn after death depends on their karma, that is to say, their past actions. So this revival only prolongs the suffering indefinitely. According to Buddhist philosophy, it is neither the same nor another reborn. This is not, as in the principle of reincarnation, an immortal soul that is "reincarnated". Indeed, the concept of reincarnation implies the existence of an immortal soul in and out of a body and re-enters another, while according to Buddhist belief, there is no such thing. Which remain after death would not be a "soul", but psychic energy then reappear in another form during the Renaissance.

 

LA VACUITE ET LE NON SOI

La "vacuité "( 6) est une notion qui indique qu'il y a une différence fondamentale entre la façon dont nous percevons le monde (y compris nous) et la réalité de ce monde. Voir le monde comme peuplé d'entités autonomes, séparées et durables, objectivement existantes, est une erreur métaphysique. Selon la thèse de la vacuité, les phénomènes se définissent non pas par une "nature propre", une chose en soi qui leur appartiendrait en propre, mais uniquement par l'ensemble des rapports qu'ils ont entre eux. Les phénomènes surgissent d'un processus d'interdépendance de causes et de conditions, mais rien n'existe en soi ni par soi.

 

Emptiness AND NOT SELF

The "emptiness" (6) is a concept that indicates that there is a fundamental difference between the way we perceive the world (including us) and the reality of this world. See the world as objectively existing populated autonomous entities, separate and durable, is a metaphysical error. According to the theory of emptiness, phenomena are defined not by "own kind", a thing in itself that they themselves owned, only by all reports they have them. Phenomena arise from an interdependent causes and conditions of the process, but nothing exists in itself or by itself.

 

                            L’Enso est le symbole de la vacuité dans le bouddhisme zen.

Le Bouddhisme nie qu'il y a un moi permanent et autonome càd qu'il y a une âme immortelle ou un principe vital, mais admet un "moi empirique" (le corps-esprit) qui est décomposé en cinq "agrégats d'attachement" :

Le corps (rūpa) ;

les sensations (vedanā) ;

les perceptions (samjñā) ;

les "fabrications mentales" (samskāra) ;

la conscience (vijñāna).

Il y a une croyance erronée en l'existence de la personnalité, de "soi" qui émerge de ces cinq agrégats d'attachement. En effet, ils ne sont pas "soi" car si c'était vrai, on en aurait la maîtrise totale et ils mèneraient au bonheur, ce qui n'est pas le cas. Il faut donc parvenir à les séparer, à briser l'attachement et la croyance qu'ils sont "soi" pour revenir à l'initial "non-soi".

 

                             The Enso is the symbol of emptiness in Zen Buddhism.

Buddhism denies that there is a permanent and autonomous self ie that there is an immortal soul or vital principle, but admits an "empirical self" (mind-body) which is divided into five "clusters attachment "

The body (rūpa);

sensations (vedana);

perceptions (samjna);

the "fabrications" (Samskara);

consciousness (Vijnana).

There is a mistaken belief in the existence of personality, "self" that emerges from these five aggregates of attachment. In fact, they are not "self" because if that were true, we would have total control and they would lead to happiness, which is not the case. It is therefore necessary to achieve the separate, to break the attachment and the belief that they are "home" to return to the original "non-self".

 LE NIRVANA

Bouddha propose ainsi de se réveiller de notre cauchemar, de chasser la confusion et l'illusion pour être illuminé par la réalité. Le but ultime de son enseignement est « la délivrance », le « dénouement », « la libération de la souffrance » ou nirvāna, càd la fin de la souffrance et du cycle karmique.

 NIRVANA

Buddha proposes to wake up from our nightmare, hunt confusion and illusion to be illuminated by reality. The ultimate goal of teaching is "the issue", the "outcome", "liberation from suffering" or nirvana, ie the end of suffering and the karmic cycle.

 

LA MEDITATION

La méditation est indissociable du Bouddhisme comme elle l'est de même avec le Taoisme. "Le véritable objet de la méditation n'est pas d'apaiser l'esprit, pas plus que devenir détaché ou indifférent. Au contraire, le but est d'obtenir une compréhension profonde et intime de la nature de la réalité et de soi même, d'entrer en contact avec des parties de soi même qu'on ne connaissait pas auparavant, de transformer notre vision de ce qui est, et aller vers l'obtention d' une vision qui est libératrice. Une vision profonde et intime qui permet de découvrit ce qu'on est réellement, et se faisant , de mettre un terme à sa quête agitée et à son insatisfaction".

 MEDITATION

Meditation is inseparable from Buddhism as it is with Taoism. "The real object of meditation is not to soothe the mind, nor become detached or indifferent. Instead, the goal is to get a deep and intimate understanding of the nature of reality and of itself , to come into contact with parts of itself we did not know before, to transform our vision of what is, and move toward achieving a vision that is liberating. a deep and intimate vision that allows of what is actually discovered, and in doing so, put an end to his quest and stirred dissatisfaction. "

 

L'EVEIL

Un livre de contes Zen rapporte: "Le Satori (7) l'Eveil à la conscience de Bouddha, l'Illumination, selon les doctrines du bouddhisme Zen, surgit à l'occasion d'un évènement impromptu, d'un hasard, d'une chance, dans les esprits préparés à l'accueillir. Comme le voleur dans la "maison vide" : l'âme débarrassée de son" ego".

 

Une nonne étudiait le Zen, jour après jour, depuis trente trois ans. Elle était entrée au monastère en qualité de jeune novice à dix sept ans. Elle en avait cinquante maintenant. Sa vie de fertilité était achevée. Elle n'en gardait pas d'amertume. Elle vaquait aux occupations quotidiennes avec patience et l'humeur égale. Elle préparait le riz ou l'orge grillée, elle allait matin et soir chercher de l'eau au puits distant d'une centaine de mètres. Parfois, un nuage de mélancolie la visitait, elle le chassait. Elle pratiquait zazen avec régularité, elle méditait, elle étudiait les écrits des grands maîtres du passé. Mais elle n'avait jamais connu le Satori, la paix inimaginable, qui inonde brusquement l'âme étonnée, le rire, le grand rire de l'Eveil.

 

Un soir, elle revenait du puits et la nuit tombait. Elle observait sans y penser le reflet de la lune dans l'eau du seau. C'était un vieux seau, dont elle avait réparé le fond avec du bambou tressé. Brusquement il céda, l'eau s'échappa, et la lune disparut aussitôt avec l'eau du vieux seau. A cet instant précis, elle connut le Satori. Elle fut libre.

 

Le Zen est une expérience intime, qui permet d'unir le visible et l'invisible, le relatif et l'absolu, ce qui se passe et ce qui demeure. Il n'est ni le bien ni le mal, nio le oui ni le non, ni le vide, ni le plein. " Il est au delà du monde des contraires, d'un monde construit par la distinction intellectuelle...," écrit D.T.Suzuyki, un écrivain Japonais." Chrétien, si je crois à la valeur du Zen dans une vie chrétienne, c'est que le Zen n'est attaché à aucune religion, à aucune croyance. Il invite seulement à plus d'authenticité, à ne pas se barricader dans les dogmatismes, à ne pas se scléroser dans des rites sans vie. On constate ses fruits chez les plus grands maîtres: la simplicité, le désintéressement, l'esprit de pauvreté, la compassion, l'amour, la joie, l'équilibre et la sérénité. Le Zen est une lampe allumée, un feu sur la colline, une conscience éveillée.""

  

AWAKENING

A book of Zen stories reports: "The Satori (7) Awakening the Buddha consciousness, enlightenment, according to the doctrines of Zen Buddhism arose in the course of an impromptu event, a chance to a chance in the minds prepared to welcome as a thief in the "empty house". the soul freed from its "ego".

 

A nun studying Zen, day after day, for thirty three years. She entered the monastery as a young novice to seventeen. She had fifty now. His life was completed fertility. She does not keep bitterness. She attended to the daily routine with patience and equanimity. She cooked rice or roasted barley, it was morning and night to get water to the remote one hundred meters well. Sometimes a cloud of melancholy visited her, she was hunting. She practiced zazen regularly, she meditated, she studied the writings of the great masters of the past. But she had never known the Satori, the unimaginable peace that floods suddenly surprised the soul, laughter, great laugh enlightenment.

 

One night she came back well and it was getting dark. She watched without thinking about the reflection of the moon in the water bucket. It was an old bucket, which she had repaired the bottom with woven bamboo. Suddenly it gave way, the water broke, and the moon soon disappeared with the old water bucket. At that moment, she knew Satori. She was free.

 

Zen is an intimate experience that unites the visible and the invisible, the relative and absolute terms, what is happening and what remains. It is neither good nor evil, nio yes or no, neither the empty nor full. "It is beyond the world of opposites, a world built by intellectual distinction ...," writes DTSuzuyki, a Japanese writer. "Christian, if I believe in the value of Zen in Christian Life, c 'is that Zen is not attached to any religion, no belief. It only invites more authenticity, not to retreat into dogmatism, not to ossify in rites lifeless. It is found in fruit the greatest masters: simplicity, selflessness, spirit of poverty, compassion, love, joy, balance and serenity Zen is a lighted lamp, a fire on the hill, an awakened conscience. "."

 

                                                                         ***

 

                                                                        ***

LE SOUFISME

Dans l'Islam, la partie exotérique est le " shariyah" , la "Grande Voie" commune à tous, sa partie religieuse avec son côté social et législatif qui peut être définie comme la loi qui réglemente l'action humaine.

 

Sa partie ésotérique est en même temps le "haqîqah",la "Vérité intérieure" , la Connaissance pure, accessible seulement à une élite ayant la capacité d'acquérir sa connaissance, les "initiés", et la "tarîqah", la "Voie" ou le "Chemin" qui mène de la première à la seconde, càd les moyens d'acquérir cette Connaissance.

 

Pour les Soufis, la shariyah, la Grande Voie est comme la Circonférence tandis que le haqîqah, l'unique et inamovible Vérité est le Centre. Le tariqah, le chemin pour aller de la circonférence au Centre, est un rayon, et comme il y a une infinité de rayons, il y a une infinité de tariqah . C'est ainsi qu'il est dit que "les Voies vers la Connaissance sont nombreuses, comme sont nombreux les enfants d'Adam", alors que "El tawhidu wahidun", càd que "la Doctrine de l'Unité est unique".

 

En langue Arabe toute doctrine initiatique et ésotérique est appelé "el-taçawwuf" qui veut dire "initiation". Celle propre à l'Islam est appelée en Français "'Soufisme" qui vient de "çufi" qui apparût au début du 9è siècle sous le califat des Abbassides.Le mot çufi viendrait lui même de "çuf" qui veut dire "laine" et qui désigne l'habit en laine adopté par certains mystiques musulmans, ou de "safa" qui veut dire "pur".

 

Le Soufisme vient de petits cercles de pieux musulmans qui devant l'expansion galopante et guerrière de l'Islam, préféraient mettre l'accent sur la vie intérieure de l'esprit et de purification morale. Au 9è siècle le Soufisme se développa en une doctrine mystique qui recherchait une communion directe et même l'union extatique avec Dieu, violant l'orthodoxie de l'Islam, et entraînant une grande réaction de la part des autorités officielles. Ainsi en 922, Al Hallaj, qui était accusé de s'identifier comme ayant été en communion avec Dieu fût exécuté à Baghdad.

 

Le Soufisme a des caractéristiques qui sont similaires à ceux des ascètes mystiques des traditions non musulmanes de l'époque qui existaient, avant la venue de l'Islam, dans les régions où sont apparus les premiers Sufis, comme le Nestorianisme (8), la Chrétienté orientale, le Gnosticisme (9), le Neoplatinisme (10), le Manichéisme (11) ou le Bouddhisme.

 

Les Soufis croient posséder le potentiel nécessaire pour accéder à l'union spirituelle avec Dieu, et donc à la Connaissance, à la Divine Vérité, cela grâce à la contemplation et la méditation.

 

Cette faculté est une grâce accordée par Dieu (baraka), mais le chemin spirituel pour l'atteindre n'est pas simple. Il y a des principes, des stades (maqamat), des états (halat) qu'ils faut suivre et pratiquer, dont, par exemple les sept stades: repentance, abstinence, renonciation, pauvreté, patience, foi en Dieu et ouvert à la volonté de Dieu. La progression se fait par l'enseignement d'un maître Soufi qualifié (shaik ou pir) ayant été lui même déjà réalisé spirituellement. Le maître transmet à son disciple la baraka qu'il a lui même reçue de son propre maitre à travers une chaîne initiatique ininterrompue depuis Mahomet et Ali ibn Abu Talib.

 

Les Soufis croient que chaque génération d'initiés est lié à un maitre secret qui est l'être parfait"(qutb). Seulement ceux qui ont complètement achevé leur réalisation soufiste, càd renonciation à soi-même (fana), survivance avec Dieu (baqa) et connaissance (marifa) peuvent le reconnaitre.

 

Les Soufis vivent dans la pauvreté en ermites ou en groupes. Depuis le 12è siècle, ils ont tendance à se regrouper en fraternités ( ou tariqah, chemin vers la connaissance).

 

Le poème soufi suivant, illustration de la pensée soufie, tiré du "Rumi, Mathanawi, livre premier", fait penser au Taoisme et au Bouddhisme.

 

"Je ne suis ni de l'Est, ni de l'Est, ni de la mer, ni de la terre,

Je ne suis ni matériel, ni éthéré, ni composé d'éléments,

Je n'existe pas,

Je ne suis une part ni de ce monde, ni d'un autre

Je ne descends ni d'Adam, ni d'Eve, ni d'aucune origine,

Ma place n'a pas de place, une trace de ce qui n'a pas de trace, ni corps ni âme.

J'appartiens au Bien-Aimé,

J'ai vu les deux Mondes réunis en un seul,

Le premier, le dernier, celui du dehors, celui du dedans,

Simples comme le souffle d'un homme qui respire."

( Rumi, Mathnawi, Livre premier)

  SUFISM

In Islam, the exoteric part is the "Shariyah," the "Great Way" common to all, religious party with its social and legislative side that can be defined as the law that regulates human action.

 

His esoteric part is at the same time "haqlqah," "inner truth" pure knowledge, accessible only to an elite with the ability to acquire knowledge, the "insiders" and "tariqah", the "Way "or" path "leading from the first to the second, ie the means to acquire this knowledge.

 

For the Sufis, the Shariyah, the Great Way is like the circumference while the haqlqah the single irremovable Truth is the center. The tariqah, the way to go from the circumference to center, is a radius, as there is an infinite number of rays, there is an infinity of tariqah. Thus it is said that "Paths to Knowledge are many, as are many of the children of Adam," while "El tawhidu wahidun", ie that "the Doctrine of Unity is unique."

 

In Arabic and all initiatory esoteric doctrine is called "al-tasawwuf," which means "initiation". Own that Islam is called in French "'Sufism" which comes from "CUFI" which appeared in the early 9th century during the reign of CUFI come Abbassides.Le word itself as "CUF" which means "wool" and which means the wool dress adopted by some Muslim mystics, or "Safa" meaning "pure".

 

Sufism has small circles of pious Muslims who before the war and rampant spread of Islam, preferring to focus on the inner life of the spirit and moral purification. The 9th century Sufism developed into a mystical doctrine that sought direct communion and even ecstatic union with God, violating the orthodoxy of Islam, and causing a great reaction from the official authorities. Thus in 922, Al Hallaj, who was accused of identifying themselves as being in communion with God was executed in Baghdad.

 

Sufism has characteristics that are similar to those of non-Muslim mystical ascetic traditions of the era that existed before the coming of Islam in the areas where there were first Sufis, as Nestorianism (8), the Eastern Christianity, Gnosticism (9), the Neoplatinisme (10), Manichaeism (11) or Buddhism.

 

Sufis believe they have the potential to access the spiritual union with God, and therefore the knowledge, the Divine Truth, thanks to contemplation and meditation.

 

This ability is a grace given by God (baraka), but the spiritual path to achieve is not simple. There are principles, stages (maqamat), states (halat) they must follow and practice, including, for example the seven stages: repentance, abstinence, renunciation, poverty, patience and faith in God and open to God's will. Progress is made by teaching a Sufi master qualified (or Sheik pir) was already made himself spiritually. The master sends his disciple baraka he himself received from his own master through an unbroken chain of initiation since Muhammad Ali ibn Abu Talib and.

 

Sufis believe that each generation Insider is linked to a master secret which is perfect "(Qutb). Only those who have fully completed their Sufi realization, ie surrender oneself (fana), survival to God (baqa) and knowledge (Marifa) can recognize it.

 

Sufis live in poverty as hermits or in groups. Since the 12th century, they tend to cluster in fraternities (or tariqah, the path to knowledge).

 

Sufi poem following illustration of Sufi thought, taken from "Rumi Mathanawi, Book One," is reminiscent of Taoism and Buddhism.

 

"I am neither of the East nor of the West, nor the sea, nor the earth,

I am neither hardware nor ethereal nor composed of elements,

I do not exist,

I am not a hand, nor of this world or another

I descend from Adam or Eve or any origin,

My place has no place, a record of which no trace, neither body nor soul.

I belong to the Beloved

I saw the two worlds together in one,

The first, the last, from the outside, one from within,

Simple as the breath of a man who breathes. "

(Rumi, Mathnawi, Book One)

 

                                                                                 ***

CONCLUSION

Ainsi, sont décrits de façon très succincte les principales caractéristiques des quatre Voies que sont le Confucianisme, le Taoisme, le Bouddhisme et le Soufisme:

 

Le Confucianisme, partie exotérique de la tradition chinoise, préconise l'harmonie entre le Ciel, la Terre et l'Homme, par la formation de l'Homme idéal pour construire la Société idéale.

 

Le Taoisme, le Bouddhisme et le Soufisme ont en commun de viser à aller au delà de la dualité et du monde de la forme par la pratique quotidienne d'une vie d'ascète accompagnée d'exercices de l'esprit qui permettent d'atteindre la paix intérieure, des états de conscience modifiés, l'apaisement progressif du mental, la complète libération, l'Eveil, la Connaissance, la Vérité.

 

"Je ne sais plus si c'est le vent qui me porte ou c'est moi qui porte le vent" dit le Taoiste.

"Je ne suis ni de l'Est, ni de l'Ouest, ni matériel, ni éthéré, je n'existe pas" déclare le Soufiste.

Le Bouddhiste ne considère pas qu'il y ait un "soi" mais des attachements d'agrégats donnant lieu à un "soi" artificiel qu'il faut briser pour revenir au "non-soi" initial.

 

Ces trois dernières Voies sont communément définies comme des Voies Méditatives.

 

La première, le Confucianisme, qui vise le bonheur de l'homme en société et qui n'a pas de pratiques réelles de l'esprit pour aller au delà du monde de la vie, n'est pas considérée comme telle.

 

En Chine et au Viet Nam, les trois Voies que sont le Confucianisme, le Taoisme et le Bouddhisme se pratiquaient comme une Voie Triple qui faisait partie des mœurs et coutumes du pays.

 

 

NGUYEN NGOC Chau

Paris, 28/02/2011

 

Ref: Divers ouvrages, textes et documents

 

 CONCLUSION

And are described very briefly the main characteristics of four routes that are Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Sufism:

 

Confucianism, exoteric part of Chinese tradition, advocates harmony between Heaven, Earth and Man, by the formation of the ideal man to build the perfect company.

 

Taoism, Buddhism and Sufism have in common the aim to go beyond the duality and the world of form through the daily practice of a life of ascetic accompanied by exercises of the mind that achieve inner peace, of altered states of consciousness, the gradual calming of the mind, complete liberation, enlightenment, Knowledge, Truth.

 

"I do not know if it is the wind that carries me or me bringing the wind," said the Taoist.

"I am neither of the East nor of the West, or equipment, or ethereal, I do not exist," said the Sufi.

Buddhist do not consider there to be a "self" but attachments aggregates giving rise to a "self" that must be broken for artificial return to the original "non-self".

 

Over the past three routes are commonly defined as Meditative Paths.

 

The first, Confucianism, which is the happiness of man in society and has no real practical mind to go beyond the world of life, is not considered as such.

 

China and Viet Nam, the three routes that are Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism were practiced as a Triple Way, which was part of the manners and customs of the country.

 

 

Nguyen Ngoc Chau

Paris, 28/02/2011

 

Ref: Various publications, texts and documents

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pays de Chu, Royaume de Zhou

1 http://www.fraternet.com/magazine/etre2907.htm

2 Son enseignement est basé entr'autres sur les Six annales ( Luc Kinh:- Kinh Thi, Kinh Thư, Kinh Lễ, Kinh Dịch, Kinh Xuân Thu và Kinh Nhạc), et les 4 Livres (Tứ Thư) . Son petit fils Khổng Cấp produisit le Trung Dung ( Voie du Milieu), ManhTu continua sa tâche avae d'autres écrits.

3 Voir "vacuité" au chapitre sur le Bouddhisme

4 http://www.radio-canada.ca/par4/ind/guerrier/wu_wei.htm

5 Le Bouddhisme pour les nuls, Editions First

6 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Śūnyatā

7 Nom Japonais donné à l'Eveil dans le Bouddhisme Zen

8 Nestorianisme : Hérésie de Nestorius, évêque de Constantinople (v. 380-451) essaya d'expliquer les deux natures dans le Christ par l'affirmation de l'existence de deux personnes, l'une divine, le Fils du Père, l'autre humaine, le fils de Marie.

9 Gnosticisme: croyance que les hommes sont des âmes divines emprisonnées dans un monde matériel créé par un dieu mauvais ou imparfait appelé le Démiurge .

10 Néoplatonisme: à partir de 232 (Ammonios Saccas et surtout Plotin), insistance donnée au premier Principe (l'Un en général) et à des expériences spirituelles.

11 Manichéisme: Mani (un Perse) au IIIe siècle. Séparation du monde en deux : royaume de la lumière, de l'éternité, de la Vie divine, et royaume des ténèbres, de la matière, des "morts", de l'espace/temps.

 

  

Country of Chu, Kingdom of Zhou

1 http://www.fraternet.com/magazine/etre2907.htm

2 His teaching is based among others on the history Six (Luke Kinh - Kinh Thi Kinh Thư, the Kinh, Kinh dich, Xuan Kinh Kinh Thu và Nhạc) and 4 Books (Tứ Thư). His little son Khong Trung Dung Cape produced the (Middle Way) ManhTu continued his task avae other writings.

3 See "emptiness" in the chapter on Buddhism

4 http://www.radio-canada.ca/par4/ind/guerrier/wu_wei.htm

5 Buddhism for Dummies, First Editions

6 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Śūnyatā

7 Japanese name given to enlightenment in Zen Buddhism

8 Nestorianism (v. 380-451) Heresy of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople tried to explain the two natures in Christ by affirming the existence of two persons, one divine, the Son of the Father, the other human, the son of Mary.

9 Gnosticism: belief that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect or evil god called the Demiurge.

10 Neoplatonism: from 232 (especially Plotinus and Ammonius Saccas) emphasis given to the first principle (the A in general) and spiritual experiences.

11 Manichaeism Mani (a Persian) in the third century. Separation of the world into two realms of light of eternity, the divine Life, and the kingdom of darkness, matter, "dead" space / time.

 

 

 

Meditative Paths

April 5, 2011 at 4:40 pm

MEDITATION AND MEDITATION

According to Larousse, "meditate" means "to submit to a deep reflection, review, think deeply."

 

According to wikipedia, "the term meditation (Latin meditatio) refers to a mental or spiritual practice that is often, but not necessarily in a focus on some object of thought as a philosophical principle meditate for example, in the in order to deepen the meaning or reflect on itself in order to meditative practice to achieve his "spiritual identity".

 Two Ways of Chinese Traditions, Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism and the Way of the Sufi Islam are they the "Meditative Paths"?

 

                                                                                * * *

All routes meet the final goal to which man hope they lead. Is not that the goal of any spiritual journey is a sort of "Supreme Peace," a "Peace without limit," it is called by the Buddhist Nirvana, Heaven by Christians, or reinstatement in the Universe and return to the One Taoist?

 

                                                                               * * *

EXTREME EASTERN TRADITION

Far Eastern tradition that provides a progressive path to this ultimate peace and that we will study here differs from the tradition of the West, or rather the Middle East, that the way to achieve it. The return to the God of the Christians, Muslims to Allah, is it not also the return to the Creator, to the Truth, to Knowledge, to the Origin of Creation, to the A, behind all I need regular.

 

CREATION

Lao Tzu who lived in the mid 5th century BC, before leaving the country of his birth () for a final retreat in western China, left for posterity the only collection of its teaching, the Tao Te Ching or "Book of the Way and Virtue - translate some of Righteousness -". In this collection, inspired by the I Ching, the "canonical Treaty change" inherited from the Chinese tradition dating back thousands of years BC, he spoke as follows of Creation:

 

"The Tao gave birth to One

One gave birth to Two

Two gave birth to Three

Three gave birth to the ten thousand things

Every being on her back and the dark hug light

Undifferentiated blast is harmony "

 The "Tao" mentioned by Lao Tzu is literally translated as "Way." But it is the Supreme Principle is both the origin and the end of all beings. It has the shape of which has no form, and image that has no picture. It does not create the world as something separate from him because he is never separated from nature and human beings, it "is" the nature and beings. It does not, it creates. And no appropriate name can be associated with it.

 "The Tao that can be named is not the eternal Tao, Lao Tzu said,

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

Unnamed, he is the Universe

With a name, it is the Mother of all beings. "

 

The "A" represents the Primordial Breath, Unit / Entire First, the Universal Life Energy and Primordial, past and present, without opposite, infinite and eternal, born Tao of the Supreme Principle.

The "Two" which is the Yin and Yang produced three breaths-energy: pure, impure and mixed, which in turn formed respectively Heaven is Yang, Earth is Yin, and man who is a mixture of Yin and Yang.

 The "Three" is the Great Chinese Triad, Heaven, Earth and Man generates all creation by combination of Yin and Yang.

 

THE YIN AND YANG

The "Yang" is the masculine principle, active, creative, bright, which is associated with the sky, the sun. The "Yin" is the feminine principle, passive, existential, obscure, which is associated with the earth to the moon.

 Both yin and yang principles are present in all things and balance continually dynamically. Many pieces of ancient Chinese coins are round with a square hole in the middle, and lots of mythical or legendary stories of this country revolve around these two geometric figures that are one, the square (which can be drawn with. .. a square), the earth, the material world, the Yin and the other, the circle (which can be drawn with a compass ...), Heaven, the spiritual world, Yang.

 In Yang there is Yin and vice versa in Yin Yang there. There is no absolute or absolute Yin Yang, and this is rightly figured by the "Wheel of Lao Tzu" which is "the Möbius strip." Take a tape at both ends, and stick them in the back, the Moebius strip. At any level of the tape, there is the presence of two faces, like Yin and Yang are present in every aspect of life and what is created.

 Anything that can be described in terms of Yin and Yang as they are in all things into three types of relationship exists: (1) in relation Opposition knowing that one carries within it the seeds of other, (2) Interdependence relationship because one can not be conceived without the other, excess or deficiency of one with consequences on the other and an imbalance of together, and (3) in relation generative and Mutation of one into the other.

 Thus, traditional Chinese doctors concerned to preserve and restore the balance between Yin and Yang in the body of their patients because the disease is the result of an untreated imbalance may not be the place where it hurts.

 It should be added that the change is the only law that governs all. Nothing is fixed, there is no dogma. For example, in a family of mother, father and son, the mother is Yin (feminine gasoline) from the husband. But it will be Yang (male gasoline) to his son as long as they feed. As for the child, Yin (ie gasoline female) at birth compared to his father and his mother, it becomes Yang (male gasoline) from her mother as a teenager. But it remains Yin (feminine gasoline) from his father, until his adulthood. While for any foreigner in the family circle, the male offspring will be Yang (male gasoline) from his birth to his death.

 

And before all this, what should the man to go to the Supreme Peace?

 Chinese Tradition offers two approaches, one, Confucianism, and the other, Taoism that completes the first.

 Confucian APPROACH

The first step lies in our everyday life and is accessible to everyone. Master Kong ie Confucius who lived from 551-479 BC would resume the exoteric part of Chinese tradition.

                                                                   A WAY OF LIFE IN SOCIETY

For him (1) "the proper functioning of a society must go with the knowledge of a cosmic order upper carrying universal precepts, and by the recognition of a specific human nature intimate order. As soon as the man feels the largest holder of Virtue and that which is called "nobility of heaven", he discovered united to infinity as with others and understands that social order can only come from its willingness to develop the perfection that is in him. "

 In this sense, Confucius (2) considers that it is for everyone to work and develop in itself the essential wisdom for harmony between Heaven, Earth and Man is maintained, ie to lead an exemplary life following the "will of Heaven "being one with it through their own behavior forged in a number of key principles based on love for others and for oneself.

 It advocates respect for the family order, a strict moral code in society, and the practice of the Middle Way. Politically the governor must develop in him the wisdom to move the welfare of his subjects before his own, which is the indispensable condition for others to follow his example and be themselves instigators of prosperity and happiness .

"The key to the teaching of Confucius, it is under study. Hence the examination system for recruiting staff, which will be set up in China and last until 1906 and that will long be copied by neighboring countries, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. "

 "Confucius also emphasized the practice of the six" art "music (himself played the lute), calligraphy, the science of numbers (math), the archery, dancing and driving tanks (consciousness of the animal, speed control). "

 Thus, as Chinese medicine is primarily concerned to treat the cause of evil, not just evil, Confucian doctrine proposes to treat the root cause of social unrest.

 Child, I was taught by the family and school sayings simple, easy to remember and full of common sense that remained in my memory. Thus, the perfect man must have five essential qualities of goodness, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and loyalty. (In Vietnamese "Nhan, Nghia Le, Trí Tin"). They need to know in order of priority, to take care of his family, govern the country and bring peace to the world (in Vietnamese "Tề  gia tri quốc Bình thiên hạ"). A girl should know how to be good with his hands, be beautiful, well-spoken and well behaved ("công, dung, Ngôn Hạnh"). Child, a woman takes care of her parents, married, she takes care of her husband and mother, she takes care of her children, etc ...

According to Rene Guenon, there are three levels in Confucianism. There is "the scholar who looks at the Savant, the scientist who looks at the Sage, and Sage watching heaven."

 

                                                                   * * *

TAOIST APPROACH

One more step forward, beyond the teaching of Master Kong, and it is discovered that the serene balance achieved through a life away under extreme is not yet the ultimate approach. It is only necessary to go to another road much less accessible to ordinary condition, the Tao, Lao Tzu and taught by several Taoist masters who followed in his footsteps.

 Rene Guenon, once again, said that the Confucian is like a horizontal cross, trying to reach the midpoint and looking up to heaven, the Taoist is on the vertical which rises from the Point and the highest level of Confucianism, the sage, is the lowest of Taoism.

 According to some, Lao Tzu would have taken the esoteric part of the Chinese tradition to express this second approach.

 Laozi Taoist Way explains in the book that he had left, the Tao Te Ching:

 "From the beginning, he said, human beings have achieved the" A ".

Heaven by accessing the "One" became pure

Earth by accessing the "One" became quiet,

Minds by accessing the "One" became effective,

Valleys by accessing the "A" filled,

Beings by accessing the "A" multiplied,

Princes and lords by accessing the "One" became the example of the Universe. "

 

"Reach the Supreme emptiness (3)

And you stand in peace,

Before the teeming bustle of beings

Not contemplate their back.

Indeed, every being accomplished its growth

Then returns to its root. "

 

The "A", I had already told you, is the Primordial Breath, the "First Unit".

 The following story, taken from the book Lie Tzu, a major Taoist great Masters illustrates somehow Taoist Way.

 This was the time when Lie Tzu himself still trying to learn from the great master Lao Chan.

 "When I became a disciple of my master, he said, it was only after three years to be afraid to try internally and externally and qualify by any words, he honored me for the first time a look.

 After five years, when I get to the bottom of judging myself what is right and what is not, and distinguished by the word between what is good and what is bad, then my master smiled for the first time.

 After seven years, when naturally be erased in my mind the distinction between right and wrong, and in my words that between advantage and disadvantage, my master, for the first time, made me sit on his mat .

 After nine years, when I had lost all sense of right and wrong, good and evil, me as well as with respect to others, so I stood in the perfect communion between the world outside my property and privacy, I could distinguish the Master as a master or a friend as a friend.

 Not distinguish inside and outside, is to feel the view as "hearing, hearing, smell like, smell like taste, all integrated into a single whole. My heart is beating like more, my body as completely delivered, my flesh and bones as dissolute, I do not feel that my body is based on something or that my feet are resting on the ground. I am the wind from the East to West, like a leaf detached from his arm, like a fruit out of the tree, I do not know if it is the wind that carries me or me bringing the wind. "

 

                                                                             the Tao

It is therefore not to get into one of two positions of duality to fight each other, to eliminate the Yin, the dark, keeping only the Yang, white. Because the black Yin Yang would like white go away, and the perpetual cycle would continue. Because this would correspond to remain in the contradictions of what has been created, without really trying to escape to begin the road back to the Origin.

 

Taoist Way is to seek to achieve not differentiate good from evil, to receive and accept quietly love and hate, black and white, joy and sorrow, not feel, see or experience of Yin and Yang differentiated , what is created, to access the intimate communion of itself with all that surrounds us.

 

This is a Way that offers practical, lifestyle, exercises, that connect to harmonize yin and yang, heaven and earth, that is to say, the visible and the invisible.

 

THE WU WEI

  There is the practice of Wu Wei (Vo Vi in Vietnamese), which is often translated as "No stress", "No Action". It is (4) "the principle of action of the sage who is in harmony with the Tao, outside and inside." According to John Blofeld, it is "[...] do not go beyond the spontaneous action that is tailored to needs as they arise, not to engage in actions carefully calculated and not act with the intention to exceed the minimum necessary to achieve the desired. "results. This is a kind of leave it natural and nature become one with this one, do not go against it and let go of what is ultimately an illusion and illusion, an "act by not acting" . It assumes that "one develops the feeling of being a channel through which is the Tao." As suggested by the I Ching, the "canonical Treaty mutations" of the Chinese Tradition, "the man manages to eternity in that it does not want to do everything himself glorying in its own strength, but opens peacefully and every moment impulses emanating from the depths of creative forces. ".

 

"Reaching eternity is to live with the awareness of eternity which is considered a state of mind. Eternity can not be in the future any more than it is in the past. time as we understand it, as we perceive, exists only in material terms. but eternity is also there but obscured by time. It is in the present moment, here and now .

 

Wu-wei is therefore to be "internally available", "abandoned to the divine will," which comes from the upper dynamics. Like nature, the "divine will" is everywhere, it is the universal Intelligence becoming outside and still inside each. Outside, it is manifested by events, circumstances, conditions of life - which we must adapt. For it must be like water, the meandering of the river, which undergoes all the changes - not his true nature is to be water, but those imposed on the intricacies that are events, circumstances the conditions - before melting into the ocean where it comes from. "

 

MEDITATION

Beyond meditation made to understand the depths of oneself, the Taoist internal alchemy practice whose meaning is the fusion of Yin and Yang of the three essential components of the human being (three jewels Sanbao 三寶, tam Bao Vietnamese) that are the essence (jing Chinese, tinh in Vietnamese), breath (qi Chinese, Vietnamese KHI) and spirit (shen Chinese than in Vietnamese).

 

These three components must regress to their original state by asceticism and meditation with many years that the final step is to obtain what is called the "great elixir of return" (dahuandan ), a cosmic embryo Yang purely go to Heaven, a symbol of eternity, to return to the primordial unity of the Tao, pushing what remains of Yin to Earth.

 

          Development of cosmic embryo, a process of Taoist internal alchemy

My own grandfather left the world meditating on the day he announced, ie after 9 years 81 days left to meditate in a tower without dismounting. This case is not unique and is found in the Taoist Masters as well as in high-level Buddhist Venerable.

 

                                                                               * * *

BUDDHISM

The founder of Buddhism, the Buddha (ie the Buddha) Shakyamuni lived, it is thought to 563-483 BC. Frederic Renoir who compared his life to that of Jesus, noted that, unlike this one which is God, who does not hesitate to enjoy the feast at parties as a man, and is represented in full on suffering a cross, Buddha is a simple man who lived an ascetic in Saint, and is represented by the wise peaceful and serene features.

 

Born prince, four meetings, disease, old age, death and seeking leading a wandering life, he revealed some disturbing truths which led him to give up everything to devote himself entirely to the spiritual quest. After six years of asceticism without result, it asseya the foot of the Bodhi tree and meditated until "the day when he won the" Awakening "," enlightenment "," total and complete understanding. "He saw how the attachment that is the source of all suffering is rooted in ignorance.

 

Buddha said that in substance (5), is that "if you want to discover the true source of your problems, you have to look inside yourself. Suffering is not a punishment you inflict d other persons, or situations of life, nor any supernatural force outside of yourself. the suffering you inflicted is not without reason, it is not simply random in a world that would be meaningless and governed by the law of chance. Instead of suffering or dissatisfaction you feel is directly related to attitudes that emerge from your heart and your mind. "

 

FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS AND Eightfold Path

He enunciated the four noble truths. This one is the trail that leads to the cessation of suffering, and 4) the cessation of displeasure, 3) the cause of suffering, 2) suffering: 1) Noble Eightfold path ie 1) understanding right, 2) just thinking, 3) right speech, 4) right, work 5) right livelihood, 6) right effort, 7) right mindfulness, 8) right concentration.

 

Buddhism encourages us to use the full range of our mental, emotional and spiritual faculties and our intelligence, instead of just blindly put our faith in what the authorities in the past have said. It gives people who practice a way to find answers to the big questions of life as "Who am I?", "Why do I exist", "What is the meaning of life, why we suffer? "How can I achieve lasting happiness?"

 

It is not a belief system while it lays down certain principles. "Do not accept anything I say to be true simply because it is me who says, Buddha said. Instead try this as if you were teaching a goldsmith testing the quality of gold. If after reviewing my commandments, you find that they are true, then put them into practice. But do not put them into practice simply out of respect for me. "

 

It does not have the concern of the presence of a supernatural power. One day, in response to two questions put to him by a monk named Malunkyaputta, "the Universe there a beginning and an end" and "the Buddha you are there after death," Buddha took the example a man wounded by a poisoned arrow that wants to know who was injured, what caste, which village he comes from and what kind of wood the arrow is made before leaving treatment. "It is clear, he said that the man would die before all these questions have been answered. Because, you noticed it, that the universe is eternal or not, you will always be confronted with the birth, decay and death, as well as worry, grief, and despair, against which I command you now antidote. "

 

Cycle of rebirth (Samsara) AND PAST ACTIONS (Karma)

Men are subject to Samsara ie the cycle of rebirths. The "world" (Loka) in which they will be reborn after death depends on their karma, that is to say, their past actions. So this revival only prolongs the suffering indefinitely. According to Buddhist philosophy, it is neither the same nor another reborn. This is not, as in the principle of reincarnation, an immortal soul that is "reincarnated". Indeed, the concept of reincarnation implies the existence of an immortal soul in and out of a body and re-enters another, while according to Buddhist belief, there is no such thing. Which remain after death would not be a "soul", but psychic energy then reappear in another form during the Renaissance.

 

Emptiness AND NOT SELF

The "emptiness" (6) is a concept that indicates that there is a fundamental difference between the way we perceive the world (including us) and the reality of this world. See the world as objectively existing populated autonomous entities, separate and durable, is a metaphysical error. According to the theory of emptiness, phenomena are defined not by "own kind", a thing in itself that they themselves owned, only by all reports they have them. Phenomena arise from an interdependent causes and conditions of the process, but nothing exists in itself or by itself.

 

                             The Enso is the symbol of emptiness in Zen Buddhism.

Buddhism denies that there is a permanent and autonomous self ie that there is an immortal soul or vital principle, but admits an "empirical self" (mind-body) which is divided into five "clusters attachment "

The body (rūpa);

sensations (vedana);

perceptions (samjna);

the "fabrications" (Samskara);

consciousness (Vijnana).

There is a mistaken belief in the existence of personality, "self" that emerges from these five aggregates of attachment. In fact, they are not "self" because if that were true, we would have total control and they would lead to happiness, which is not the case. It is therefore necessary to achieve the separate, to break the attachment and the belief that they are "home" to return to the original "non-self".

 

NIRVANA

Buddha proposes to wake up from our nightmare, hunt confusion and illusion to be illuminated by reality. The ultimate goal of teaching is "the issue", the "outcome", "liberation from suffering" or nirvana, ie the end of suffering and the karmic cycle.

 

MEDITATION

Meditation is inseparable from Buddhism as it is with Taoism. "The real object of meditation is not to soothe the mind, nor become detached or indifferent. Instead, the goal is to get a deep and intimate understanding of the nature of reality and of itself , to come into contact with parts of itself we did not know before, to transform our vision of what is, and move toward achieving a vision that is liberating. a deep and intimate vision that allows of what is actually discovered, and in doing so, put an end to his quest and stirred dissatisfaction. "

 

AWAKENING

A book of Zen stories reports: "The Satori (7) Awakening the Buddha consciousness, enlightenment, according to the doctrines of Zen Buddhism arose in the course of an impromptu event, a chance to a chance in the minds prepared to welcome as a thief in the "empty house". the soul freed from its "ego".

 

A nun studying Zen, day after day, for thirty three years. She entered the monastery as a young novice to seventeen. She had fifty now. His life was completed fertility. She does not keep bitterness. She attended to the daily routine with patience and equanimity. She cooked rice or roasted barley, it was morning and night to get water to the remote one hundred meters well. Sometimes a cloud of melancholy visited her, she was hunting. She practiced zazen regularly, she meditated, she studied the writings of the great masters of the past. But she had never known the Satori, the unimaginable peace that floods suddenly surprised the soul, laughter, great laugh enlightenment.

 

One night she came back well and it was getting dark. She watched without thinking about the reflection of the moon in the water bucket. It was an old bucket, which she had repaired the bottom with woven bamboo. Suddenly it gave way, the water broke, and the moon soon disappeared with the old water bucket. At that moment, she knew Satori. She was free.

 

Zen is an intimate experience that unites the visible and the invisible, the relative and absolute terms, what is happening and what remains. It is neither good nor evil, nio yes or no, neither the empty nor full. "It is beyond the world of opposites, a world built by intellectual distinction ...," writes DTSuzuyki, a Japanese writer. "Christian, if I believe in the value of Zen in Christian Life, c 'is that Zen is not attached to any religion, no belief. It only invites more authenticity, not to retreat into dogmatism, not to ossify in rites lifeless. It is found in fruit the greatest masters: simplicity, selflessness, spirit of poverty, compassion, love, joy, balance and serenity Zen is a lighted lamp, a fire on the hill, an awakened conscience. "."

 

                                                                         ***

 

 SUFISM

In Islam, the exoteric part is the "Shariyah," the "Great Way" common to all, religious party with its social and legislative side that can be defined as the law that regulates human action.

 

His esoteric part is at the same time "haqlqah," "inner truth" pure knowledge, accessible only to an elite with the ability to acquire knowledge, the "insiders" and "tariqah", the "Way "or" path "leading from the first to the second, ie the means to acquire this knowledge.

 

For the Sufis, the Shariyah, the Great Way is like the circumference while the haqlqah the single irremovable Truth is the center. The tariqah, the way to go from the circumference to center, is a radius, as there is an infinite number of rays, there is an infinity of tariqah. Thus it is said that "Paths to Knowledge are many, as are many of the children of Adam," while "El tawhidu wahidun", ie that "the Doctrine of Unity is unique."

 

In Arabic and all initiatory esoteric doctrine is called "al-tasawwuf," which means "initiation". Own that Islam is called in French "'Sufism" which comes from "CUFI" which appeared in the early 9th century during the reign of CUFI come Abbassides.Le word itself as "CUF" which means "wool" and which means the wool dress adopted by some Muslim mystics, or "Safa" meaning "pure".

 

Sufism has small circles of pious Muslims who before the war and rampant spread of Islam, preferring to focus on the inner life of the spirit and moral purification. The 9th century Sufism developed into a mystical doctrine that sought direct communion and even ecstatic union with God, violating the orthodoxy of Islam, and causing a great reaction from the official authorities. Thus in 922, Al Hallaj, who was accused of identifying themselves as being in communion with God was executed in Baghdad.

 

Sufism has characteristics that are similar to those of non-Muslim mystical ascetic traditions of the era that existed before the coming of Islam in the areas where there were first Sufis, as Nestorianism (8), the Eastern Christianity, Gnosticism (9), the Neoplatinisme (10), Manichaeism (11) or Buddhism.

 

Sufis believe they have the potential to access the spiritual union with God, and therefore the knowledge, the Divine Truth, thanks to contemplation and meditation.

 

This ability is a grace given by God (baraka), but the spiritual path to achieve is not simple. There are principles, stages (maqamat), states (halat) they must follow and practice, including, for example the seven stages: repentance, abstinence, renunciation, poverty, patience and faith in God and open to God's will. Progress is made by teaching a Sufi master qualified (or Sheik pir) was already made himself spiritually. The master sends his disciple baraka he himself received from his own master through an unbroken chain of initiation since Muhammad Ali ibn Abu Talib and.

 

Sufis believe that each generation Insider is linked to a master secret which is perfect "(Qutb). Only those who have fully completed their Sufi realization, ie surrender oneself (fana), survival to God (baqa) and knowledge (Marifa) can recognize it.

 

Sufis live in poverty as hermits or in groups. Since the 12th century, they tend to cluster in fraternities (or tariqah, the path to knowledge).

 

Sufi poem following illustration of Sufi thought, taken from "Rumi Mathanawi, Book One," is reminiscent of Taoism and Buddhism.

 

"I am neither of the East nor of the West, nor the sea, nor the earth,

I am neither hardware nor ethereal nor composed of elements,

I do not exist,

I am not a hand, nor of this world or another

I descend from Adam or Eve or any origin,

My place has no place, a record of which no trace, neither body nor soul.

I belong to the Beloved

I saw the two worlds together in one,

The first, the last, from the outside, one from within,

Simple as the breath of a man who breathes. "

(Rumi, Mathnawi, Book One)

 

                                                                                  ***

CONCLUSION

And are described very briefly the main characteristics of four routes that are Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Sufism:

 

Confucianism, exoteric part of Chinese tradition, advocates harmony between Heaven, Earth and Man, by the formation of the ideal man to build the perfect company.

 

Taoism, Buddhism and Sufism have in common the aim to go beyond the duality and the world of form through the daily practice of a life of ascetic accompanied by exercises of the mind that achieve inner peace, of altered states of consciousness, the gradual calming of the mind, complete liberation, enlightenment, Knowledge, Truth.

 

"I do not know if it is the wind that carries me or me bringing the wind," said the Taoist.

"I am neither of the East nor of the West, or equipment, or ethereal, I do not exist," said the Sufi.

Buddhist do not consider there to be a "self" but attachments aggregates giving rise to a "self" that must be broken for artificial return to the original "non-self".

 

Over the past three routes are commonly defined as Meditative Paths.

 

The first, Confucianism, which is the happiness of man in society and has no real practical mind to go beyond the world of life, is not considered as such.

 

China and Viet Nam, the three routes that are Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism were practiced as a Triple Way, which was part of the manners and customs of the country.

 

 

Nguyen Ngoc Chau

Paris, 28/02/2011

 

Ref: Various publications, texts and documents

 

  

Country of Chu, Kingdom of Zhou

1 http://www.fraternet.com/magazine/etre2907.htm

2 His teaching is based among others on the history Six (Luke Kinh - Kinh Thi Kinh Thư, the Kinh, Kinh dich, Xuan Kinh Kinh Thu và Nhạc) and 4 Books (Tứ Thư). His little son Khong Trung Dung Cape produced the (Middle Way) ManhTu continued his task avae other writings.

3 See "emptiness" in the chapter on Buddhism

4 http://www.radio-canada.ca/par4/ind/guerrier/wu_wei.htm

5 Buddhism for Dummies, First Editions

6 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Śūnyatā

7 Japanese name given to enlightenment in Zen Buddhism

8 Nestorianism (v. 380-451) Heresy of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople tried to explain the two natures in Christ by affirming the existence of two persons, one divine, the Son of the Father, the other human, the son of Mary.

9 Gnosticism: belief that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect or evil god called the Demiurge.

10 Neoplatonism: from 232 (especially Plotinus and Ammonius Saccas) emphasis given to the first principle (the A in general) and spiritual experiences.

11 Manichaeism Mani (a Persian) in the third century. Separation of the world into two realms of light of eternity, the divine Life, and the kingdom of darkness, matter, "dead" space / time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Google Translate for Business:Translator ToolkitWebsite TranslatorGlobal Market Finder

Turn off instant translationAbout Google TranslateMobileCommunityPrivacyHelp



[1] The reactif energy

[2] Reactive blast

Thiện Chí








NHAT KÝ CUỐI TUẦN / Thiện Chí

NHẬT KÝ CUỐI TUẦN / Thiện Chí




BẢN THỂ HỌC / Thiện Chí

CUỘC THÁCH ĐỐ / Thiện Chí






ƯỚC VỌNG VÀO XUÂN / Thiện Chí




















TÔI LÀ AI ? / Thiện Chí





TIỀM LỰC SÂU THẲM / THiện Chí




















TÂM VẬT BÌNH HÀNH / Thiện Chí

























Dòng thiên ân / Thiện Chí

Suy ngẫm đầu Xuân / Thiện Chí












Minh Lý Đạo Khai / Thiện Chí

Đức tin Cao Đài / Thiện Chí

Đức tin Cao Đài / Thiện Chí



Hãy tự biết mình / Thiện Chí





Ba Dấu Ấn ĐĐTKPĐ / Thiện Chí

Văn Hóa Đạo Đức / Thiện Chí

Chính Long Đức Trung / Thiện Chí





Khai Xuân Tiến Đức / Thiện Chí

Cơ đạo Kỳ Ba / Thiện Chí


Phục sinh / Thiện Chí

Sống tự nhiên / Thiện Chí


Tỳ Thổ / Thiện Chí






Thiên Nhãn / Thiện Chí

Dưỡng dục quần sanh đức hiếu sanh,
Khai Minh Đại Đạo, Đạo tài thành,
Tam Kỳ tận độ an thiên hạ,
Thánh đức âu ca hưởng phước lành.

Đức Ngọc Hoàng Thượng Đế, CQPTGL, Rằm tháng 10 Quý Sửu

Chúng tôi rất hoan nghênh và sẵn sàng tiếp nhận các ý kiến đóng góp của bạn để phát triển Nhịp Cầu Giáo Lý ngày một tốt hơn.


Hãy gửi góp ý của bạn tại đây